Tuesday, 17 April 2012

Before starting mushroom farming assess the following factors

Potential mushroom cultivator should consider the following factors before starting mushroom farming:

  • Species/strain to cultivate
  • Method/scale of cultivation
  • Climate versus requirements of species/method of cultivation
  • Availability/cost of proper substrates
  • Land prices and availability
  • Access to unchlorinated water/feasibility of water treatment
  • Demand for mushrooms in your area
  • Practicality of distribution outside your area
  • Cost of labor
  • Cost of equipment installation (electrical wiring,
  • laboratory and growroom construction/assembly,
  • air system installation, etc.)
  • Method of financing the startup of your operation

Books on mushroom cultivation in india by Directorate of Mushroom Research

Here are some of books published by DMR Solan

1.  Shwet button khumb ka utpadan {HINDI} (Rs. 100/-)
                 Dr. Yash Gupta, and Dr. B. Vijay, 93pp. 1996

2.  Grism kaleen shwet button ki kheti (Hindi)(Rs. 50/-)
                 Dr. B.L. Dhar and Dr. R.N. Verma, 29pp. 1998

3.   Mushroom spawn production and infrastructurerequirements (Rs. 50/-)
                 Dr. R.C. Upadhyay, Dr. S.K. Singh and Dr. R.P.Tewari, 38pp., 2004

4.   Farm design for white button mushroom cultivation (Rs. 50/-)
    Dr. B.L. Dhar and Er. T. Arumuganathan, 32pp., 2005

5.   Mushroom utpadan takniki- Ek parichey (Hindi)(Rs. 10/-)
    Dr. M.P. Sagar and Dr. R.N. Verma, 18pp., 2001

6.   Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Rs. 30/-)(xerox copy)
    Dr. R.C. Upadhyay, 28pp., 1990.

7.    Post-harvest technology of mushrooms (xerox copy) (Rs. 30/-)
    Dr. S. Saxena and Dr. R.D. Rai, 18pp., 1990

8.  Mushroom recipes (Rs. 100/-)
     Mrs. Shailja Verma and Dr. R.D. Rai, 73pp. 2005

9.  Training compendium (English) (Rs. 250/-)

10.  Recent advances in the cultivation technology of edible mushrooms (Rs. 250/-)
     Dr. R.N. Verma and Dr. B.Vijay, 295pp. 2002

11.  Frontiers in mushroom biotechnology (Rs. 350/-)
     Dr. R.D. Rai, Dr. R.C. Upadhyay and Dr. S.R.Sharma, 430pp., 2005   

12.   Diseases of mushrooms and their management (Rs. 30/-) (Xerox copy)
     Dr. S.R. Sharma, 61pp., 2005

13.  Insect, mite and nematode pests of mushrooms and their management (Rs. 50/-)
     Dr. Satish Kumar & Dr. S.R. Sharma, 61pp., 2005

For all inquiries regarding publications, please contact:

The Director
National Research Centre for Mushroom
Chambaghat, Solan-173 213 (HP), India
Telephone: (01792) 230451, 230767, 230541 (Ext 101)
Fax: (01792) 231207
Website: www.nrcmushroom.org
Email: nrcmushroom@rediffmail.com

Ms. Lal Muni Devi, mushroom cultivator of Azad Nagar village in Bihar

Landless labour Ms Lalmuni devi from Bihar earning their livelihood by mushroom farming. Lets read their real success story by her own experience.

The real success of agriculture lies not only in improving the lifestyle of small and marginal farmers but also upgrading and improving the lives of landless labourers who form the backbone of the sector.

Ms. Lal Muni Devi is one such landless labourer of Azad Nagar village on the outskirts of Bihar. She has been leading a life of poverty living in a thatched cowshed (making it her home) managing her family of six.

Poor labourers
Though not a farmer, Lal Muni and her family are among the hundreds of landless poor labourers who work for the local land owners.

All this changed when scientists from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar, brought together 25 women from her village to form a Self Help Group (SHG), called Mahila Utthan Samiti and taught them to grow mushrooms.

“The method taught by the scientists appealed to me as it did not require any land. Prior to this, I had never even heard of mushrooms till the scientists told me.

Ready market
“I then learnt to grow mushrooms (Oyster and milky white summer mushrooms variety). Both these varieties grow well in the dark and damp interiors of my house,” she said. There is a market for them in the nearby city and wheat straw is available in plenty. The mushroom spawns are readily available and not expensive. Lal Muni earns Rs. 50-75 from oyster mushroom at the rate of Rs.8-10 per bag in addition to the meagre income from her family labour.

Good profit
“I used to work as farm labour since my childhood and now I am grateful to the scientists who taught me to earn my livelihood respectfully and independently. I learnt that I could grow mushrooms in my house and later found that they fetched a good profit too,” she says with a broad smile. For the first two years, ICAR provided free seeds (called spawns) until the participants were able to generate their own income.
But from 2007 in addition to the free seeds supplied by ICAR they started buying their own seeds (to increase income) at the rate of Rs.50 a kg.

One kg of seed yields 10-14 kg of mushrooms. The oyster variety sells for Rs.50-75 a kg during winter and in summer the milky white mushrooms fetch Rs. 80-120 a kg, according to Dr. A.R. Khan, Principal Scientist, ICAR, Research Complex for Eastern Region, Bihar Veterinary College Patna. Muni Devi has been able to grow oyster mushrooms in 155 bags and has been able to harvest about 210 kg and got a net profit of Rs. 10,500.

She has also cultivated milky white mushrooms in 95 bags and has harvested about 130 kg gaining a profit of Rs. 9,400. Her net profit from December 2006 to July 2007 from mushroom cultivation was Rs. 19,900, without any major investment.

Though half of the women quit the SHG after ICAR stopped supplying free seeds, many of them came back as the income from mushroom generation was too good for them to resist.
Even the menfolk are learning this cultivation after seeing the price mushrooms fetch, explained Dr. Khan.

Self sufficient
“We want this SHG to become self sufficient before this mushroom project is totally withdrawn from the area,” he said. “Our future remains bleak after the ICAR people leave us at the end of the project,” she said with some concern.

“Though a lot of government officials and foreign dignitaries have been visiting my village which is socially and economically backward, nobody has helped us in developing our skills further,” she laments.

For more information readers can contact:
Dr. A.R. Khan, Principal Scientist, Indian Council of Agricultural Research Complex for Eastern Region, P.O., Bihar Veterinary College Patna-800014, phone: 0612-2223962, email: khan.patna@gmail.com, mobile: 09431421960.

Mushroom Training in Bihar

Training programmes on mushroom cultivation technology by Muzaffarpur Botanical Research Institute- Bihar

Training Details
The Cultivation Technology of following types of Mushroom will be covered during the training course with special emphasis on practicals.
1.Cultivation Technology of White button mushroom - Agaricus bisporus and A.bitorquis.
2.Cultivation Technology of Oyster mushroom - Pleurotus spp.
3.Cultivation Technology of Paddy straw mushroom - Volvariella spp.
4.Cultivation technology of Specialty mushrooms - Shiitake

The Cultivation Technology of above mushrooms will cover following aspects in details:
  • Nutritional / Medicinal value of mushrooms and - its relevance in healthy food.
  • Seeds/spawn preparation technique for mushrooms.
  • Substrate preparation technique for mushrooms.
  • Infrastructure requirement for setting up of a composite mushroom farm.
  • Crop raising of all above mushrooms including crop management.
  • Pest/diseases management in mushrooms.
  • Post harvest handling/value addition of mushrooms

Course contents
(Entrepreneurs Training Course)
1) Mushrooms- An agri business
2) Nutritional and medicinal value of mushrooms
3) Culture preparation and preservation techniques in mushrooms
4) Spawn production technology
5) Quality traits in cultivated mushroom strains and consumer acceptability
6) Formulations and recent advances in compost production for button mushroom
7) Post composting supplementations for high yield of button mushroom
8) Recent advances in crop management of white button mushroom
9) Farm-design and infrastructure for a commercial mushroom growing unit
10) Economics of button mushroom cultivation under controlled conditions
11) Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.)
12) Infrastructure requirement and economics of oyster mushroom
13) Cultivation & economics of paddy straw mushroom, (Volvariella spp.)
14) Cultivation & economics of milky mushroom ( Calocybe indica )
15) Cultivation of Shiitake and other specialty Mushrooms
16) Cultivation of medicinal mushrooms
17) Competitor moulds/fungal and viral diseases of mushrooms
18) Bacterial diseases and abiotic disorders of mushrooms
19) Insect, pests & nematodes of mushrooms and their management
20) Uses and/or disposal of spent mushroom substrate
21) Post harvest handling, value-addition and marketing of mushrooms
22) Round the year cultivation of mushrooms
23) Financial assistance from Banks for mushroom project
24) Sources of information for various inputs and guidance

1. Culture preparation
2. Spawn production
3. compost preparation for white button mushroom
4. Substrate preparation for oyster mushrooms
5. Substrate preparation for paddy straw mushroom
6. Substrate preparation for Shiitake & Auricularia
7. Substrate preparation for Calocybe
8. Substrate preparation for Reishi mushroom
9. Casing and crop management in button mushrooms
10. Diseases /mould/insect pests, field identification and their management
12. Post-harvest handling for value addition including dehydration of mushrooms
13. Farm visit
14. Video film on mushroom cultivation/ harvesting/ processing
15 Visit to the mushroom farm

Anyone who is wishing to get mushroom training contact the address given below:

Contact Adress
Muzaffarpur Botanical Research Institute
Bhatauliya, (pokhraira), Gidha, Muzaffarpur
For detail log in:- www.mbri.co.in
Mob:- 09931991970, 09404722814

Milky mushroom training in south india, Bangalore, Karnatka, Kerala, Andhrapradesh

Ravioli national mushroom farming

We provide training for milky mushroom cultivation on every month of 15th and 16th. For each batch 40 students are accommodated. Here we will provide milky mushroom cultivation with hands on practice. We are expert trainer in milky mushroom cultivation where we have got training in various organizations.. The intentions of this training is to enterprise and educate the people intended to cultivate mushroom to provide hands on training to them. We give training in all set infrastructure with new technology. Prior registration for training is mandatory .

In training we provide
1. Books on milky mushroom cultivation,
2. Information on spawn making technology,
3. Mushroom bed making with all the procedure,
4. Shed structure,
5. And about marketing,
6. And buy-back agreement.

For more details contact us on
Raj Patil :- 09986879909
Sayeed Zeeshan :- 08123473335
Contact_raj25@yahoo.co.in /
Chirumuri, Sawantwadi road,
Belgaum, Karnataka   

Milky mushroom cultivation in south india

Milky mushroom Cultivation/Farming

The milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) is a potentially new species to the world mushroom growers. It is a robust, fleshy, milky white, umbrella like mushroom, which resembles button mushroom. The species is suitable for hot humid climate and can be cultivated indoor in high temperature and high humidity areas. It grows well at a temperature range of 25-35°C and relative humidity more than 80%. Milky mushrooms can be cultivated throughout the year in the entire plains of India.

The cultivation technology is very simple, involves less cost and no special compost is needed for the cultivation. The cultivation process resembles that of oyster mushroom but for the additional process of casing. The mushroom can be harvested from 24-28 days after spawning and the total crop cycle is only 45-50 days. Most importantly, the milky mushroom has an extended shelf life of 3-5 days compared to other cultivated species, making it more amenable to handling, transportation and storage. So, there is a growing interest among the farmers towards milky mushroom. The production technology of milky mushroom is outlined here:

Milky mushroom can be cultivated on a wide range of substrates like, paddy straw, maize stalks, sorghum stalks, pearl millet stalks, palmarosa grass, vetiver grass, sugarcane baggase, soyabean hay, groundnut haulms etc. However, for commercial production paddy straw is the best substrate.

Polythene bags of 60x30 cm or 75x45 cm size are used for bed preparation. Chaffed paddy straw bits of 3-5 cm length are soaked in cold water for 4-5 hours. After draining the excess water, the straw bits are boiled for 45-60 minutes in a separate drum. Though hot water treatment is the safe and best method of sterilization, steam treatment or chemical treatment with a solution containing carbendazim and formalin can also be followed. After treatment, the substrate is shade dried to remove excess moisture before bed preparation. At the time of bed preparation the substrate should contain around 60% moisture (can be tested by squeeze method).

Spawn requirement and availability
Milky mushroom is also propagated through spawn. Spawn produced with sorghum grain/paddy chaff as substrate is most commonly used. With each bottle of spawn 2 cylindrical beds can be prepared.

Production of mushroom spawn
Sorghum or wheat grains are used for spawn preparation. Half cooked grains, are mixed with calcium carbonate @ 20g per kg of grains(dry weight), thoroughly mixed and filled in polypropylene bags ( 15x30 cm size) provided with PVC rings as neck. The bags are tightly plugged with non-absorbent cotton and sterilized at 1.42-kg/cm2 pressure and 126ºC temperature for 1.5-2.0 hours in an autoclave. When the bags are cool, they are aseptically inoculated with fresh cultures of oyster mushroom fungus. The work should be done in a culture room or in a laminar flow chamber. After inoculation the spawn bags are stored in a clean room for 15-20 days before use. These bags with white mycelial growth serve as mother culture. Each mother spawn bag can be used for inoculating 30 bed spawn bags that can be prepared following the above procedure. It is advisable to have a thorough training in the Kerala Agricultural University, before starting spawn production unit.

Bed preparation
Cylindrical beds are prepared following layer method of spawning. A layer of straw is laid and sprinkle one tablespoon full of spawn over the filled straw around the peripheral region. A second layer of processed straw is filled and spawned as above. Repeat the process until the soaked straw is finished. Every time before spawning, press the straw with hand for making it compact. Finally the bag is close tightly with twine and the beds are incubated for spawn running under semi-dark condition in a clean room. Spawn run will be completed in 12-15 days at 30-35°C.

Unlike oyster mushroom cultivation, milky mushroom production involves an additional process called casing. After the completion of spawn run, the cylindrical beds are cut horizontally into two equal halves. Apply casing soil on to both halves to a height of 1-2 cm. The casing soil is prepared by steaming garden soil (clay loam, pH around 8.0) for one hour.

After casing, the beds are to be incubated over racks in a partially sunken chamber lined with blue coloured high-density polythene sheet as roofing material. Optimum relative humidity of 80-95%, room temperature of 24-28°C and light intensity of about 1600 –3200 lux should be maintained in the cropping room. Proper ventilation for gaseous exchange is also essential in this chamber. The beds are regularly sprayed with water to maintain 50-60% moisture level on the casing surface. Pinheads appear in 8-10 days after casing and the first harvest can be made in 6-8 days after pinhead formation. After obtaining the first harvest the casing medium is gently ruffled, slightly compacted back and sprayed regularly with water. Second and third harvest may be obtained within 45-50 days of bed preparation. Then the beds are removed and fresh beds may be kept for cropping.

On an average single mushroom weighs 55-60 g and mean yield is 356 g/bed (contains 250g of paddy straw on dry weight basis), which accounts to 143% bio-efficiency. Milky mushroom is a rich source of protein with protein content of 32.3% and fetches high market price compared to oyster mushrooms. It is highly suitable for drying, canning, soup powder preparation and pickle making.

हमारे किसानों ने पकड़ी हाईटेक राह

हरियाणा के किसान परंपरागत खेती छोड़कर व्यावसायिक खेती की ओर बढ़ रहे हैं। इसकी कई वजहें हैं। पहला तो उत्पाद लेकर मंडियों के चक्कर नहीं काटने पड़ते, दूसरा अधिक मुनाफे के साथ सम्मान भी मिल रहा है।

फसलचक्र अपनाने से खेतों की उर्वरा शक्ति भी कायम रहती है। अहम बात यह है कि कम जगह में अच्छी पैदावार होती है और फसल बेचने के बाद किसानों को तत्काल पैसा मिल जाता है। और भी कई कारण हैं जिसकी वजह से किसान इस व्यावसायिक खेती की ओर आकर्षित हो रहे हैं।

इनमें कर्ज लेकर खेती करने वाले तथा वैसे किसान भी शामिल हैं जिन्हें अपने फसल की पूरी कीमत भी नहीं मिल पाती। कुछ ऐसे भी हैं जो परंपरागत खेती से ऊब चुके हैं। इसमें कोई अतिश्योक्ति नहीं कि आज का किसान ‘प्रोग्रेसिव किसान’ बन गया है।

घटती जमीन और बढ़ती मांग के चलते फसल चक्र अपनाकर किसान अब हाइब्रिड फसल उगा रहे हैं। ये कम भूमि में अधिक मुनाफा लेने के लिए बेबी कोर्न, ब्रोकली, बटन मशरूम, मिल्की मशरूम, ढिगड़ी आदि फसल उगा रहे हैं।

ऑर्गेनिक खेती से पैसा और सम्मान

परंपरागत खेती व लगातार घाटे से ऊब चुके राई (सोनीपत) के किसान एडवोकेट कंवल सिंह चौहान को ऑर्गेनिक और व्यावसायिक खेती ने सम्मान, शोहरत के साथ पैसा भी दिया। जिला स्तरीय पुरस्कार से सम्मानित चौहान कहते हैं ‘ऑर्गेनिक व व्यावसायिक खेती ने मेरी तकदीर बदल दी।’ खेतों में बढ़ते रासायनिक खाद के प्रयोग और स्वास्थ्य पर पड़ने वाले इसके दुष्प्रभाव ने ही उन्हें इस ओर आकर्षित किया।

1997 से व्यावसायिक खेती कर रहे चौहान ने ऑर्गेनिक खेती में खादी ग्रामोद्योग से २क्क्२ में प्रशिक्षण लिया

Goat farming in india - Books in hindi

Book- 1

Bakri Palan: Rog evam Aadhunik Chikitsa (Goat Production: Disease and Treatment)/Ghosh, Nilotpal & Aparna Ghosh

Author : Publisher : Daya Publishing House 2009
 Price-   166/-



Price:                    Rs. 450.00
Writer:                 EIRI Board


Monday, 9 April 2012

How to make Mushroom Gravy Recipe

Items required to make mushroom gravy:-

  • 3/4 Cup white or button mushrooms, chopped 
  • 2-1/2 Cups vegetable broth 
  • 1/4 Cup vegan margarine 
  • 1 Small yellow or white onion, minced 
  • 1/4 Cup flour 
  • 2 tbsp Soy sauce 
  • 1 tbsp Poultry seasoning 
  • Salt and pepper to taste

How to cook it:
  • In a skillet, melt the margarine and add onion and mushrooms to it.
  • Fry them for 1 to 2 minute on high heat.
  • Reduce the heat to medium and combine broth and soy sauce to it.
  • Gradually add flour to it, stirring well to combine and prevent the lumps from the forming.
  • Bring it to simmer or a low boil, and then decrease the flame.
  • Add poultry seasoning, salt and pepper to it, stirring constantly.
  • Cook it for about 8 to 10 minutes, stirring frequently, till gravy thickens.

Enjoy this with your family.

How to make Mushroom Curry Recipe

Here is your Mushroom curry recipe.Let's start to make this recipe.

  • Oyster Mushrooms- 1 pack
  • Cinnamon- 1 " stick
  • Cloves- 2
  • Onion- 1 (big)
  • Tomato- 2 (big)
  • Ginger garlic paste- 1tsp
  • Chilli powder- 3/4 th tsp
  • Corriander powder- 1 tsp
  • Cumin powder- 1/2 tsp
  • Curry masala powder- 1/2 tsp
  • Pepper- 1/4 tsp
  • Turmeric- pinch
  • Curry leaves and corriander leaves-few
  • Cornflour-1tsp(optional)

Cooking Methods:
  • First,clean the oyster mushrooms, just cut off the ends.Then seperate the upper portion and the stalk. Cut the stalk and the top portion into small pieces. While adding it to the gravy, first add the stalks as it takes a few minutes extra to cook than the feathery top.
  • Heat oil in a kadai and fry cinnamon and cloves. Then add onion and ginger garlic paste.Saute until golden brown and soft. Then add the masala powders for fry for a minute. Now add tomatoes and cook until it becomes soft and pulpy. Make sure that it forms a paste like consistency.
  • Then add chopped mushrooms. First the stalks. Saute for 3 mins. Then add the top part of the mushrooms. Add 1 cup water and cook for 5 to 10 mins until you get a thick gravy. 
  • Cook till you get the desired consistency. You can also add a tsp of cornflour (just dissolve it in very little water) to make the gravy thick. I did not use it here for the sake of the event. But you can certainly do it to get a nice thick gravy.
  • Now your recipe is ready to serve.

Serve it with your family and enjoy.

How to make Mushroom Fried Rice Recipe

You need the following items to make Mushroom Fried Rice Recipe:-

  • 1 Cup diced mushroom 
  • 1/2 Cup diced onions 
  • 1/4 Cup green peas 
  • 1 Tomato 
  • 1 Spoon chilly powder 
  • 1 Spoon coriander powder 
  • 5 cashews 
  • 1/4 Cup water 
  • Cooked rice 
  • Coriander chopped to garnish 
  • Salt to taste 
  • Oil as required

How to make Mushroom Fried Rice
  • Heat oil in a wok.
  • Fry cashew nuts and onions. Then add mushrooms, chilly powder, salt, coriander powder, green peas and tomatoes.
  • Add water in it. Fry till oil separates from the mixture.
  • Then mix cooked rice and garnish it with chopped coriander leaves.
  • Mushroom Fried Rice is ready.

Serve it with whatever you like.

How to make Mushroom Pulao Recipe

To make mushroom Pulao items required are:

  • 1 Cup boiled rice
  • 1-1/2 Cup button mushrooms, chopped
  • 1 Capsicum, chopped
  • 1 Onion, chopped
  • 1/2 Tomato, chopped
  • 3 Garlic cloves
  • 1 tsp Salt
  • 1 tsp Pepper
  • 1 tsp Turmeric powder
  • 1/2 tsp Chili powder
  • 3 tbsp Oil
  • Grated cheese, for garnish

How to cook it:
  • Heat oil and saute onions and garlic till they turn light brown.
  • Add chopped capsicum and tomato.Cook for 2 min.
  • Add mushrooms and cook for 3 minutes.
  • Add salt, pepper, turmeric and chili powder.
  • Add boiled rice and mix well, but gently so as not to break rice.
  • Mushroom Pulao is ready.
  • Garnish with grated cheese.

How to make Oyster Mushroom Soup

For making soup you need the following items:

  • 1 onion
  • 1 carrot
  • 1 celery heart 
  • 4 cloves garlic   
  • 4 tbsp of extra virgin olive oil
  • 300g of oyster mushrooms
  • 3-4 reconstituted dried porcini
  • 2 litres of chicken or vegetable stock
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 sprig of fresh sage
  • 1 handful of chopped parsley
  • salt and pepper 
  • agrated parmesan and bread, to serve
How to cook it:

In a food processor, whizz peeled onion and carrot, a trimmed celery heart and 4 cloves of garlic. Cut larger vegetables into smaller pieces before processing. Pulse until they are finely chopped.
Heat 4 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil in a pot and add the vegetables, frying and stirring for 6-8 minutes. Add 300g of oyster mushrooms and 3 or 4 reconstituted dried porcini. Stir while cooking for another 5 minutes.
Add 2 litres of chicken or vegetable stock, a bay leaf, a sprig of fresh sage and a handful of chopped parsley. Bring to the boil and simmer for 30 minutes.

 Serve with whatever you like.

Sunday, 8 April 2012

How to make Mushroom Masala Recipe

To make mushroom masala recipes you need the following items:-


• 1 cup Mushrooms, diced
• 1 Onion, sliced
• 1 Tomato, chopped
• 1 tsp Ginger Paste
• 1 tsp Garlic Paste
• 1 tsp Coriander Powder
• ¼ tsp Turmeric Powder
• ¼ tsp Chili Powder
• 1 Cinnamon Stick
• 6 Cashew, soaked in water
• 2 Cloves (Laung)
• 2 Cardamoms
• Salt to taste

How to cook it:
  1. Heat a tawa and roast cloves, cardamom and cinnamon. Once warm, grind them to make a fine powder and keep aside.
  2. Blend the tomatoes in the mixer into a fine paste.
  3. Separately grind the cashews and keep aside.
  4. Also make a paste of the chopped onions.
  5. Heat oil in a pan and add onion, ginger and garlic paste. Saute till the masala turns brown.
  6. Add the freshly made tomato paste and saute till oil begins to separate from the masala. Thereafter, add chilli powder, coriander powder, haldi powder, ground cashews and the roasted masala powder.
  7. Mix well and then add the mushrooms and salt.
  8. Cook for 10 to 15 minutes with little water over low flame.
  9. Garnish with fresh coriander, mint leaves, kismis, fresh cream and serve hot.